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What Gen-Z graduates want from their employers
Z世代毕业生对雇主的期待
英文部分选自经济学人202200722期文化版块
Business | Class of 2022
What Gen-Z graduates want from their employers
Z世代毕业生对雇主的期待
More flexibility, more security—and more money
更灵活、更稳定、更高薪的工作
Generation z is different. As a whole, Americans born between the late 1990s and early 2000s are less likely to have work or look for it: their labour-force-participation rate is 71%, compared with 75% for millennials (born between 1980 and the late 1990s) and 78% for Generation x (born in the decade or so to 1980) when each came of age. As a result, they make up a smaller share of the workforce. On the other hand, they are better educated: 66% of American Gen-zs have at least some college (see chart 1). The trend is similar in other rich countries. With graduation ceremonies behind them, the latest batch of diploma-holders are entering the job market. What they want from employers is also not quite the same as in generations past. And as the economy sours following a pandemic jobs boom, those wants are in flux.
Z世代与众不同。总的来说,上世纪90年代末21世纪初出生的美国人就业或者找工作的可能性更低:Z世代的劳动参与率为71%,与之相比,千禧代(出生于1980至上世纪90年代末)达到了75%X世代(出生于1980年前十年左右)则为78%。因此,Z世代的劳动力占比较小。而另一方面,Z世代的受教育程度却更高66%的美国Z世代至少有大学学历(见图1)。在其他富裕国家,该趋势如出一辙。随着毕业典礼的结束,最新一批获得文凭的毕业生正进入就业市场。他们希望从雇主那获得的东西也与过去几代毕业生有所不同。疫情相关就业机会激增,以及随之而来的经济形势恶化,导致这代毕业生的需求不断变化。
注释:
1Generation z:欧美流行语,15年为一个世代,Z世代(Generation Z)1995-2009出生的人,即从95后到00后,到10后为止。这一代人出生在互联网时代,也是的一代。来自X世代(1965-1980年)。作家道格拉斯·柯普兰(Douglas Coupland1991年小说《X世代:速成文化的故事》使“X”符号流行,1992电影马尔科姆XMalcolm X发行,所以“Generation X”留传下来。“X”是数学里的未知变量,代表人们对那一代人未定义的期待。所以X世代后面15年为Y世代(1981-1995年),再后面15年就是Z世代。
2millennials:是指出生于20世纪时未成年,在跨入21世纪(即2000年)以后达到成年年龄的一代人。这代人的成长时期几乎同时和互联网/计算机科学的形成与高速发展时期相吻合。代表人物:马克·扎克伯格(1984514日出生),Facebook社交网CEO,等等。有时会使人误以为指新千年(即2000年)之后出生的人,这是错误的,而真正意义上出生时即有互联网的2000年以后出生的人通常被称为Z世代(Z一代)。
3Generation x :(1965-1980年出生)一般认为,X世代的说法源自加拿大作家道格拉斯·柯普兰(Douglas Coupland)的同名小说《X世代:速成文化的故事》,在小说中,柯普兰将X世代称为婴儿潮世代的下一世代。尽管X世代的人们物质生活和受教育程度都更加丰富,也经历了科学技术不断发展带来的社会巨变,但成长过程中频发的经济危机和社会负面舆论却又令他们对未来感到无所适从。换言之,X世代是未知、迷茫的一代人,他们所处的环境特征大体表现为:与父辈的沟通困境、涨得比工资更快的房价、被消费和购物吞噬的生活、无孔不入的明星娱乐八卦、无法信任的媒体,还有大量不可描述、使人愤怒而无力的社会事件。
4,拓展阅读:“Z世代、千禧一代、X世代的划分和特征”https://wjrsbu.smartapps.cn/zhihu/article?id=404846629&isShared
Start with their broad preferences. Although Gen-z recruits felt more lonely and isolated than their older colleagues at the start of the pandemic, the ability to work remotely has unearthed new possibilities. The benefits go beyond working in your pyjamas. Many are taking calls from beach chairs and hammocks in more exotic locales or fleeing big cities in search for cheaper or larger homes. 
首先是他们有着广泛的选择。疫情之初,尽管Z世代的员工与更年长的同事相比,更易感到孤独和寂寞,但他们远程办公的能力带来了很多新的可能性。其中的好处不仅仅是可以穿着睡衣工作,许多人还可以在更具异国情调的地方,躺在沙滩椅和吊床上接打电话,或者逃离大城市,寻找更便宜或更宽敞的房子。
In Microsoft’s latest Work Trend Index, which polled more than 30,000 workers in 31 countries in January and February, more than half of Gen-zhybrid workers said they were relocating thanks to remote work, compared with 38% of people overall. The option to work remotely is increasingly non-negotiable. Workers aged 18 to 34 are nearly 60% more willing to quit than their older peers if the choice is taken away, according to research by McKinsey, a consultancy. They are also more likely to engage with job listings that mention flexibility. 
微软最新一期的工作趋势指数报告于今年一月和二月在31个国家3万多名员工进行了调研,超过一半混合式办公的Z世代员工表示,由于远程办公,他们选择了搬家,而在调研总人数中,愿意搬家的员工占比38%选择远程办公越来越没有商讨的余地。咨询公司麦肯锡(McKinsey)的研究报告指出,如果无法选择远程办公,与老一辈员工相比,1834职场人士的辞职意愿高60%。而且他们也更愿意去应聘提及“工作性质灵活”的岗位。
注释:
1hybrid work/working: 混合办公,即支持员工灵活选择工作地点的一种办公模式,允许员工在家中、办公室或任何其他地方办公。现在已经有很多的公司开始为这种形式的工作制定了一些指导方针,例如企业制定了混合办公时间表,明确规定员工需要在办公室办公的日期和时间;或者让员工完全自主地选择自己的工作时间和地点。20223月份起,携程集团推出“3+2”混合办公模式新政策,允许其员工在每周三、周五在家远程办公。这种更灵活的工作方式越来越收到Z时代员工的青睐,根据《全球人才趋势报告》的调研发现,在全球范围里,弹性工作安排基本上被人才认为是最重要的福利中排进前三,仅次于加薪和培训机会。
2,拓展阅读:解除隔离后,你会拥抱混合工作吗?
https://xw.qq.com/cmsid/20220531A08X3L00
This has big implications. Industries with jobs that cannot be done from home are falling out of favour with recent graduates. A study by ManpowerGroup, a recruitment company, suggests an inverse relationship between talent shortages and flexible working policies. The sectors which are either less able to offer remote work or have been slower to embrace it—including construction, finance, hospitality and manufacturing—have faced some of the biggest skills gaps for all types of job. The same is almost certainly true for their university-educated workers.
这一改变影响重大。无法居家办公的行业愈发不受新一批毕业生的欢迎。人力资源公司万宝盛华集团(ManpowerGroup)的一项研究表明,人才短缺程度和就业政策的灵活性之间成反比关系。无论是建筑业或金融业,还是酒店业或制造业,这些都是很难实现远程办公或者对远程办公接受较慢的行业,其各种岗位都或多或少存在着重大技能人才短缺的问题,相关专业大学毕业生的情况也基本相似。
That in turn has accelerated a pre-existing trend of young recruits trading Wall Street for Silicon Valley. Ever since thousands of banking jobs were axed—and the industry’s reputation tarnished—in the wake of the financial crisis of 2007-09, big tech has looked more attractive to graduates than big banks have. In Britain, the number of young people studying computer science rose by almost 50% between 2011 and 2020, to over 30,000. More than 31,000 took up an engineering course in 2020, up by 21% from 2011.
这反过来又加速了年轻求职者从华尔街转投硅谷的既有倾向。自2007年至2009年间金融危机以来,数以千计的银行职位被削减、银行业名声受损,与大银行相比,大型科技公司对毕业生更有吸引力。在英国,从2011年到2020年,学习计算机科学专业的年轻人数量涨幅50%,达到3万多人。2020年,超过3.1万人进修了工程学课程,与2011相比上涨21%
Now technology bosses are more willing than their opposite numbers in finance to let employees work from home (or anywhere else). Bankceos such as Jamie Dimon of JPMorgan Chase or James Gorman of Morgan Stanley have urged employees back to the office. By contrast, Mark Zuckerberg has allowed workers at Meta, his social-media giant, to work from anywhere if their role allows it even after the firm reopened its American offices in March. 
如今,科技公司的老板比金融机构的老板更愿意让员工居家(或在其他地方)办公。摩根大通首席执行官杰米·戴蒙(Jamie Dimon)及摩根士丹利首席执行官詹姆斯·戈尔曼(James Gorman)都要求员工回办公室上班。与之相比,虽然社交媒体巨头Meta的美国办公室早在三月份就已重新开放,但只要工作职能允许,马克·扎克伯格(Mark Zuckerberg仍允许员工在任何地点办公。
Annual rankings of employer desirability by Universum, a graduate-staffing consultancy, bear this out. In 2008 the list of best employers as graded by American graduates was dominated by big banks and the Big Four consulting firms (Deloitte,ey, kpmg and pwc). By 2021 seven of the ten highest spots were occupied by tech and media giants (see chart 2). 
毕业生就业咨询公司优兴(Universum)推出的“雇主受欢迎度”年度排名就证实了这一点。2008年,由美国毕业生打分评出的最满意雇主名单中,大型银行和四大咨询公司(德勤、安永、毕马威和普华永道)占据主导。到了2021年,排名前十中有七个是科技和传媒巨头(见图2)。
There are signs that Gen-zs’ love affair with tech may be losing some of its ardour. After a decade of frantic hiring, tech is suddenly looking like a less secure early-career bet for the ambitious graduate. Having taken a battering from nervy investors this year, companies such as Alphabet, Meta, Microsoft and Uber have slowed hiring. Twitter has revoked recently made job offers. Netflix has laid off hundreds of workers. So have newer tech darlings such as Coinbase and Robinhood. Elon Musk, Tesla’s chief executive, has announced a hiring freeze and cuts of about a tenth of the electric-car maker’s staff. More than 28,000 workers in America’s tech sector have lost their jobs so far in 2022, according to Crunchbase, a data provider. Those graduates who do choose tech are likelier to pick an established firm over a sexy startup with hazier prospects.
有迹象表明,Z世代对科技公司的热情可能正在消退。对于雄心勃勃的毕业生来说,经历了十年疯狂招聘的科技行业,突然间看起来并非一个开启自己职业生涯的稳妥行当。今年,受投资者紧张情绪的冲击,字母控股Alphabet)、Meta、微软(Microsoft)和优步(Uber)等公司已经开始减缓招聘。推特(Twitter)已经取消了近期的招聘,网飞(Netflix)也已解雇了数百名员工,比特币公司(Coinbase)和罗宾汉(Robinhood)等新兴科技宠儿也同样如此。电动汽车制造商特斯拉(Tesla)的首席执行官埃隆·马斯克(Elon Musk)已宣布叫停招聘,并裁掉了约十分之一的员工。数据供应商新创资料库(Crunchbase数据显示,2022年至今,美国科技行业已有超过2.8万名员工被裁。那些想在科技行业就业的毕业生更可能会选择老牌企业,而非新潮前卫却前景不明的初创企业。
Some graduates may instead opt for other high-tech sectors that seem less vulnerable to economic swings. Drugmakers at the forefront of the covid-19-vaccine rollout are finding particular favour. AstraZeneca and Pfizer, each of which has produced an effective jab, shot up in the rankings of Britain’s most attractive employers last year. AstraZeneca doubled its intake of high-school and university graduates in 2021. The war in Ukraine, meanwhile, may boost the appeal of armsmakers—shunned by some millennials and Gen-xers as irredeemably unethical but now able to portray themselves as producers of the “arsenal of democracy”.
有些毕业生可能转而选择其他不那么容易受经济波动影响的高科技公司,处于新冠疫苗研发推广前沿的制药企业尤为受欢迎。阿斯利康(AstraZeneca)和辉瑞(Pfizer)都分别制造了成效显著的疫苗,这两家公司在去年英国最具吸引力的企业名单中排名迅速提升。2021年,阿斯利康招收高中和大学毕业生的数量增加了一倍。与此同时,俄乌冲突还可能会提高军火制造商的就业吸引力,千禧一代和X世代曾认为它们“蔑伦悖理、无可救药”,纷纷避而远之,而如今它们却可以把自己描绘成“为民主制造弹药”的生产商。
Graduates’ sharpening focus on job security also boosts the appeal of the public sector, notes Dan Hawes, co-founder of Graduate Recruitment Bureau, a British firm. In Britain, applications for government jobs rose by nearly a third at the start of the pandemic. In March there were an estimated 67,000 more public-sector employees in the country than a year earlier. Around 1.4m Chinese vied for just over 31,000 government positions by sitting the notoriously tough national civil-service exam in November 2021, up by more than 40% compared with the previous year.
英国公司毕业生就业局(Graduate Recruitment Bureau)的共同创始人丹·霍斯(Dan Payne)指出,毕业生削尖脑袋寻找稳定工作,这也增强了公共部门的吸引力。在英国,新冠疫情之初申请政府岗位的求职者增加了近三分之一。今年三月,国家公共部门的雇员数量与一年前相比增加了近6.7万名202111月,大约140万中国人参加了异常艰难的国家公务员考试,竞争仅有的3.1万多个政府职位,报考人数比前一年增加了40%以上。
If graduates keep gravitating towards safe government jobs, that will leave a smaller talent pool for private employers to fish in. Despite signs of a slowing economy, labour markets remain tight. Many older professionals quit their jobs during the pandemic. Others retired early.
如果毕业生继续青睐稳定的政府工作,那么私营企业雇主可选择的人才库则面临缩水。尽管有经济放缓的迹象,但劳动力市场依然供不应求。疫情期间,许多年长的专业人士辞去工作,另一些人则选择提前退休。
Britain’s labour force has lost more than 250,000 people since covid-19 first struck. America has 3.3m fewer people working. The latest official figures there show 11.3m job openings but only 6m unemployed Americans. It will take at least four years for the American labour market to return to its pre-pandemic employment rates, according to theoecd, a club of mostly rich countries. 
自从新冠疫情首次爆发以来,英国的劳动力市场已流失25万多人。美国在职人数减少了330多万。最新官方数据显示美国有1130万个岗位空缺,但仅有600万人未就业。根据全球最富裕的国家组成的经合组织OECD)报告,美国劳动力市场至少需要四年时间才能恢复疫情前的就业率。
How far will companies go to entice younger workers—and keep them happy? For the time being the short answer seems to be: quite far. To burnish its flexible-working credentials Citigroup, a bank, has opened a new hub in the Spanish coastal city of Málaga, luring over 3,000 applicants for just 30 analyst roles. In addition to providing gourmet meals, round-the-clock massages and nap pods, Google recently hired Lizzo, a pop star, to perform for staff.
各家公司究竟要怎么做才能吸引和取悦年轻员工呢?目前来看答案是:做得还远远不够。为改善灵活办公机制的体验,花旗集团(Citigroup)在西班牙沿海城市马拉加(Málaga)建立了一个新中心,区区30个分析师岗位吸引了超过3000位求职者。除了提供美食、全天候按摩服务和午睡舱之外,谷歌最近还聘请了流行歌手莉佐Lizzo)为员工表演。
The best thing firms can do to attract young talent is to cough up more money. According to Universum, some earlier Gen-zhobby horses such as an employer’s commitment to diversity and inclusion or corporate social responsibility have edged down the list of American graduates’ priorities. Competitive base salary and high future earnings have edged up. Banks such as JPMorgan Chase, Goldman Sachs and Citigroup, and management consultancies including McKinsey and bcg have bumped first-year analysts’ annual pay up to $100,000. Law firms have been raising their starting salaries. bp, a British energy giant, offers recent graduates sign-on bonuses of as much as £5,000 ($6,000) and discounts on cars. Money isn’t everything. But it’s something. 
为了吸引年轻人才,公司能采取的最有力的行动就是开出更多薪酬。根据优兴咨询的数据,Z世代早期最爱谈论的一些话题无非是雇主对多样性和包容性的承诺,或企业社会责任等,而这些话题已经在美国毕业生的考虑优先级列表上排位下滑,而有竞争力的基本工资和丰厚收入的前景成为更优先的考量。摩根大通、高盛和花旗集团等银行,以及麦肯锡和波士顿咨询公司(BCG等管理咨询公司已经将分析师的首年年薪提高到了10万美元。律师事务所也一直在提高起薪。英国能源巨头BP公司为应届毕业生提供高达5000英镑(6000美元)的签约奖金以及购车折扣。钱不是万能的,但没有钱是万万不能的。
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