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有一位留学生分享说:刚到美国的时候,我非常不理解美国学生为什么这样热爱运动。对他们来说,运动好像是吃饭喝水一样不可缺少的事情。路上随便碰到一个同学都会告诉你说:“我去健身房”。
这种氛围实在太强烈了。大家都运动我也不好意思不运动了。那么我也运动吧。我想到我学过游泳。于是我抱上泳衣泳镜兴冲冲地跑去佩尼威尼体育馆的三层游泳池。半小时后我就像一只落水的鸡,旁边的歪果仁嗖一下来嗖一下去,而我抱着水线瑟瑟发抖。上臂嫩肉被水线卡出乌青,小腿肚子嘎嘎地抽着筋——而我甚至不知道怎么救自己。那个泳池号称世界上最大的地上游泳池之一,最浅水深两米,边缘没有任何踏脚的地方。除了游到台阶边,没有任何回去的办法。
世界上为什么会有两米深的泳池啊!泳池难道不应该都像中国的一样一站就到底吗?难道不应该像中国的一样手一够就能趴在岸上吗?我困在池中简直要哭出来了,一抬头救生员正密切关注着我。然而落了水的鸡也是有尊严的。我才不要被人捞起来呢。我耐心地等,等腿好一点,就一点一点慢慢游回去。
回家的路上我吹着冷风,一面不断鄙视自己。就像初中那次跑完三千米,我跟自己说,不要出去丢人现眼啦,认命吧你就是个半残废。一跑就晕菜一动就抽筋。刘翔的心林黛玉的命。
其实这位留学生的描述是有一定道理的,尤其是对上了年纪的人来说。这不美国老年医学学会曾发表一篇这样的文章《Keep moving to prevent major mobility disability》,里面的研究发现,随着年龄增长,不运动是导致残疾的最大风险因素。
Having trouble getting around on your own—such as difficulty walking, climbing steps, or being able to get in and out of a chair—can lead to physical disability and losing your independence.
独自行动有困难(比如行走困难、爬楼梯困难或者不能独立地坐下或站起等)会导致身体残疾和失去独立性。
According to research, being physically inactive is the strongest risk factor for disability as we age.
根据研究,随着年龄的增长,不运动是导致残疾的最大风险因素。
We know that physical activity has proven health benefits, especially moderate-to-vigorous physical activity such as walking to the store or many types of gardening. But perhaps surprisingly, we don't know much about the benefits of lighter forms of physical activity or the effects of spreading our physical activity throughout the day. Understanding the benefits of moving more often and engaging in even lighter forms of physical activity is important for older adults' health. These types of physical activity may be easier for older adults to practice regularly, especially those who are frail.
我们知道身体运动已证明对健康有益,尤其是中等到剧烈强度的体育活动,如步行去商店或各类园艺活。但也许令人惊讶的是,我们不太了解轻度体育活动的好处,也不太了解将体育活动分散到一整天的效果。了解经常运动和从事更轻松的体育活动的好处对老年人的健康很重要。对于老年人来说,这些类型的体育活动可能更容易有规律、定期地进行,尤其对那些身体虚弱的人来说。
That's why a team of researchers created a study to examine the effects of performing light physical activity and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity on older adults. The researchers were interested in studying how participating in these different intensities of activity, and whether a person spreads their physical activity throughout the day, affects the chances for developing a major mobility disability. The participants in the study were older adults who had challenges with physical function and who participated in the Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE) study. The researchers published their study in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society.
这就是为什么一组研究人员创建了一项研究来检验轻度体育活动和中度到剧烈体育活动对老年人的影响。研究人员感兴趣的是研究参与这些不同强度的活动、以及一个人是否在一天中分散他们的体力活动,是如何影响那些演变为严重行动障碍者的机会。这项研究的参与者是身体机能有问题的老年人,他们参加了《老年人生活方式干预和独立》(LIFE)研究。研究人员将他们的研究发表在《美国老年医学学会杂志》上。
The LIFE study examined whether a long-term exercise program could improve a major mobility disability. For the purposes of the study, the researchers considered that participants had a "major mobility disability" if they were unable to walk 400 meters (about one-quarter of a mile, or five city blocks).
《老年人生活方式干预和独立》项目研究调查了长期锻炼计划是否能改善严重的行动障碍。至于这项研究的目的,研究人员认为,如果参与者不能行走400米(约1/4英里,或5个城市街区),他们就有“严重的行动障碍”。
The people in the study ranged in age from 70 to 89 years old. Before the study, participants got less than 20 minutes of exercise a week, were able to walk 400 meters in less than 15 minutes, and were determined to be able to safely participate in the study.
这项研究中的人年龄从70岁到89岁不等。在这项研究之前,参与者每周锻炼不到20分钟,能够在不到15分钟内走完400米,并且被确定能够安全地参与这项研究。
The participants were divided into two groups: an exercise group and a group that received health education with no exercise. By the sixth month of the study, the participants in the exercise group performed an additional 40 minutes a week of moderate to vigorous exercise, which they continued after 12 months and 24 months.
参与者被分成两组:一组为锻炼组;另一组为接受健康教育但不参加锻炼的组。到研究的第六个月,锻炼组的参与者每周额外进行40分钟的中度到剧烈的锻炼,锻炼持续12个月和24个月。
The focus of the exercise program was on aerobic activity (exercises that increase your breathing and heart rate), specifically walking. Participants had a goal of completing 150 weekly minutes of moderate to vigorous exercise paired with brief balance, flexibility, and lower-body strengthening exercises. Participants aimed to exercise five to six days per week, including two weekly center-based exercise sessions. For the few weeks of training, participants advanced from exercising at a light intensity to a walking intensity they felt was at least "moderate."
该锻炼项目的重点是有氧活动(增加你的呼吸和心率的锻炼),特别是走路。参与者的目标是每周完成150分钟的中等强度到剧烈运动,同时进行短暂的平衡、柔韧性和下体强化运动。参与者的目标是每周锻炼五到六天,包括每周两次核心锻炼。在几周的训练中,参与者从轻度锻炼提升到他们认为至少是“中度”的步行强度。
Of the participants, 818 were randomly assigned to the exercise program and 507 individuals had "accelerometer" information at the beginning of the study. An accelerometer is similar to a pedometer, but it measures both amount and intensity of physical activity.
在参与者中,818人被随机分配到锻炼项目,507人在研究开始时有“加速计”信息。加速度计表类似于计步器,但它测量身体活动的量和强度。
The researchers found that the intensity of physical activity, as well as the way that physical activity is spread throughout the day, should be matched to each individual's physical health to minimize their likelihood for developing major mobility disability.
研究人员发现,身体活动的强度以及身体活动在一天中的贯穿传播方式应该与每个人的身体健康相匹配,以最大限度地降低他们患严重行动不便的可能性。
First, they recommend that frail individuals focus on building strength and balance as a key step in preventing mobility disability. Next, as strength and balance develop, older adults should focus on increasing the amount of moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity they do each day through activities like working around the home, walking for transport, or purposeful exercise.
首先,他们建议身体虚弱的人注重增强力量和平衡,以此作为预防行动不便的关键步骤。其次,随着力量和平衡的增强,老年人应该通过像在家工作、步行或有目的的锻炼等活动,专注于增加他们每天进行的中等强度到剧烈强度的体育活动。
Once individuals develop strength and balance, and engage in at least a small amount of moderate to vigorous activity, they can further reduce their risk for mobility disability by increasing the amount of light activity they do each day, and by spreading this activity across the full day, for instance through hobbies like cooking, woodworking, or light gardening.
一旦个体参与人员发展增强了力量和平衡,并参与了至少少量的中度到剧烈的活动,他们就可以通过增加他们每天做的轻度活动的量,并通过将这种活动贯穿到一整天,例如通过烹饪、木工或轻度园艺等爱好,来进一步降低他们行动不便的风险。
The researchers concluded by echoing the current United States Physical Activity Guidelines, suggesting that a "move more, more often" recommendation is a good starting place for older adults who want to maintain physical functioning and an independent lifestyle.
研究人员在结论中重复了当前的美国体育活动指南,认为“多运动,多锻炼”的建议是希望保持身体机能和独立生活方式的老年人的良好开端。

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