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《乱世佳人》中“梅兰妮”的扮演者奥利维娅·德哈维兰,当地时间7月26日在法国巴黎去世,享年104岁。她几乎是好莱坞“黄金年代”最后一位告别人间的明星。1916年7月1日出生于日本东京的她,今年7月1日刚过完104岁生日。
奥利维娅凭借1946年的《各得其所》与1949年的《女继承人》两获奥斯卡影后小金人。职业生涯中一共获得5项奥斯卡提名,和妹妹琼·芳登成为奥斯卡史上唯一一对获得过影后小金人的姐妹。
2019年奥利维娅103岁生日时,在Facebook上发了张自己骑自行车的照片,再一次向世界证明,她永远可以打破人们的期待。
如果有天生的女演员,那就是奥利维娅·德哈维兰。
——茂文·勒鲁瓦
记忆
1939年她出演了自己最著名的银幕角色《乱世佳人》的梅兰妮,并第一次获得奥斯卡提名。之后她共获得五次提名,以《风流种子》《女继承人》两次获得最佳女主角奖。
《罗宾汉历险记》《乱世佳人》《女继承人》被美国国会图书馆选入国家电影登记处永久保存。
她在《蛇穴》中的演出不仅获得当年威尼斯电影节女演员奖,也成为影史精神疾患角色最为震撼的表演之一。
2003年第75届奥斯卡典礼“全家福”,出席并致辞
虽然在银幕上以娴静、深情的美而著称,但她却是一个相当独立坚毅的女性,上世纪四十年代她将华纳告上法庭,最终成为标志性的“德哈维兰裁决”,将演员从剥削的合同解放出来。
五十年代逐渐息影后她移居巴黎,并在那里生活了六十多年。1965年她成为戛纳电影节的一位评审团女主席。
与闺蜜贝蒂·戴维斯的趣味视频合集
“在30年代扮演好女孩很困难,当时流行扮演坏女孩。实际上,我认为扮演坏女孩很无聊。我一直很幸运能饰演好女孩,因为对女演员要求更多。”
Olivia de Havilland,one of the last pillars of Hollywood royalty and a contemporary of Bette Davis and Errol Flynn, died "peacefully from natural causes" Sunday at the age of 104, talent agent Jim Wilhelm told USA TODAY. Her death marks the passing of one of the last stars of classic films of the 1930s, an actress before her time in the fight for equality and an icon who took on the studio system and won.
Best known for her role as sweet-natured Melanie Hamilton in "Gone With the Wind," the two-time Oscar winner (for 1946's "To Each His Own" and 1949's "The Heiress") will be remembered most for her beautiful diction, an air of refinement and gumption and grace on and off camera. Outspoken and steely in real life, de Havilland starred in more than 50 films on the big and small screen from 1935 to 1988 and was a staunch advocate for actors’ rights and creative freedom in Hollywood.
She was born Olivia Mary de Havilland in 1916 in Tokyo, where her father, Walter Augustus de Havilland, taught English at the Imperial University, then became a patent attorney. Her mother, Lilian Augusta Ruse, was a stage actress educated at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art in London, but she left her career to move to Japan with her husband. 
patent attorney
On a family trip to California in 1919, Olivia became ill with a bronchial condition, and her younger sister Joan (later to become the actress Joan Fontaine) developed pneumonia. Lilian decided to remain in California with Joan and Olivia for her daughters’ health. They settled in Saratoga, a suburb of San Francisco, while her father abandoned the family and returned to Japan. De Havilland’s mother divorced in 1925 and married George Fontaine, a strict stepfather the girls resented.
Fontaine died in 2013 at age 96. De Havilland's death was preceded by son Benjamin Goodrich in 1991. She is survived by her daughter, Gisele Galante Chulack, son-in-law Andrew Chulack and niece Deborah Dozier Potter. Funeral arrangements will be private, Wilhelm said. 
After making her Hollywood debut in a version of Shakespeare's "A Midsummer Night's Dream," de Havilland – named for the Bard's "Twelfth Night" character Olivia – made an early mark opposite Flynn. 
For David O. Selznick’s 1939 Civil War epic "Gone With the Wind," de Havilland said that having read the Margaret Mitchell novel, she knew she could bring the character of Melanie to life, and the actress' soft voice and graceful manner made her the perfect fit for a pivotal role: 
De Havilland's second nod came for 1941’s "Hold Back the Dawn," where she shared the best-actress category with her sister, who won for "Suspicion." 
De Havilland took home her own best-actress Oscar five years later, for her performance in "To Each His Own," and they are still the only siblings to have won lead acting Academy Awards.
De Havilland and Fontaine fostered a heated competitiveness that lasted all their lives, from childhood to stardom. That rivalry – rumored to have escalated into a feud in which the two didn’t speak – was the subject of Hollywood gossip for decades.
In 2016, three years after her sister's death, de Havilland finally broke her silence on their relationship to The Associated Press: "A feud implies continuing hostile conduct between two parties. I cannot think of a single instance wherein I initiated hostile behavior." However, she said, "I can think of many occasions where my reaction to deliberately inconsiderate behavior was defensive.”
In 1949, Fontaine put it differently, telling columnist Hedda Hopper, “You see, in our family, Olivia was always the breadwinner, and I the no-talent, no-future little sister not good for much more than paying her share of the rent."
De Havilland, who won her second best-actress Oscar for "The Heiress," was also nominated for her performance in 1948’s "The Snake Pit," one of the earliest films to feature a realistic portrayal of mental illness. That role cemented her reputation for embracing flawed and unglamorous characters.

As well-received as she was – both by the public and critically – for her part in "Gone With the Wind," de Havilland longed for more substantial parts early in her career, particularly more serious ones than as Flynn’s demure leading lady, who was usually a damsel in distress. Warner Bros. did not support her efforts. De Havilland grew increasingly frustrated by the lack of challenging roles and began to reject scripts.
De Havilland wanted to pursue opportunities with other studios, but Warner Bros. told her it added six months to her seven-year contract for times she had been on suspension.
At the urging of her lawyer, she sued Warner Bros., supported by the Screen Actors Guild. The California Court of Appeal ruled in 1944 that de Havilland was not bound to perform services beyond seven calendar years from the start of her contract. Known as the de Havilland Law, the decision proved to be one of the most important and far-reaching legal rulings in Hollywood, reducing the power of the studios and giving greater creative freedom to actors.
Performers of that era and later benefited from her legal case, and the law won de Havilland much respect among her peers and colleagues. Fontaine was even quoted as saying, “Hollywood owes Olivia a great deal.” Warner Bros. circulated a punitive letter that essentially blacklisted de Havilland. She did not work for a film studio for two years, until Paramount signed her in 1946.
In addition to championing actors’ rights, de Havilland was known for her liberal political stance. She organized a fight for control of the Independent Citizens Committee of the Arts, Sciences and Professions, which she said was being manipulated by a small group of communists. She failed, then resigned, triggering a wave of resignations, including that of an actor she had recruited to the group, Ronald Reagan. Even though she had very publicly worked to organize Hollywood resistance to Soviet influence, she was called to testify before the House Un-American Activities Committee in 1958 because of her liberal activism.

On the personal front, de Havilland was romantically involved with Flynn, Jimmy Stewart, director John Huston and filmmaking mogul Howard Hughes, though Havilland eventually married Navy veteran and novelist Marcus Goodrich in 1946, before divorcing in 1953. Their son, Benjamin, died in 1991 after a battle with Hodgkin’s disease.
She wed French journalist Pierre Galante in 1955, moved to Paris and had daughter, Gisele. De Havilland's adjustment to Parisian life was recounted in her 1962 memoir, "Every Frenchman Has One." The couple divorced in 1979.
De Havilland appeared occasionally in films in the 1950s and turned down the role of Blanche Dubois (which won Leigh her second best-actress Oscar) in 1951's "A Streetcar Named Desire." Though some said her refusal had to do with the suggestive themes of the story, she said in 2006 that she declined the part because she had recently given birth to her son.
De Havilland continued acting in films until the late 1970s and on television through the 1980s. She won a Golden Globe in 1987 and earned an Emmy nomination for "Anastasia: The Mystery of Anna." In 2009, she lent her distinctive voice to the narration of a documentary on Alzheimer’s disease titled "I Remember Better When I Paint."
She maintained perspective on her impressive longevity: “All the artists I had known during the Golden Era (live) elsewhere,” she said in 2016, “including the afterworld.”
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